Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Reading A Poem of Bertolt Brecht in the Era of Glorification of Tanks

General your tank is a powerful vehicle.
It smashes down forests and crushes a hundred men.
But it has one defect:
It needs a driver.
General, your bomber is powerful.
It flies faster than a storm and carries more than an elephant.
But it has one defect:
It needs a mechanic.
General, man is very useful.
He can fly and he can kill.
But he has one defect:
He can think.
Bertolt Brecht

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Two Historical Quotations of Lenin on Women's Question

“We must root out the old slave-owner’s point of view.” - Lenin
“Unfortunately, we may still say of many of our comrades, ‘Scratch the Communist and a Philistine appears.’ To be sure, you have to scratch the sensitive spots, such as their mentality regarding womenCould there be any more palpable proof than the common sight of a man calmly watching a woman wear herself out with trivial, monotonous, strength- and time-consuming work, such as her housework, and watching her spirit shrinking, her mind growing dull, her heartbeat growing faint, and her will growing slack? It goes without saying that I am not referring to the bourgeois ladies who dump all housework and the care for their children on the hired help. What I say applies to the vast majority of women, including the wives of workers, even if these spend the day at the factory and earn money.”
“Very few husbands, not even the proletarians, think of how much they could lighten the burdens and worries of their wives, or relieve them entirely, if they lent a hand in this ‘women’s work’. But no, that would go against the ‘privilege and dignity of the husband’. He demands that he have rest and comfort. The domestic life of the woman is a daily sacrifice of self to a thousand insignificant trifles. The ancient rights of her husband, her lord and master, survive unnoticed. Objectively, his slave takes her revenge. Also in concealed form. Her backwardness and her lack of understanding for her husband’s revolutionary ideals act as a drag on his fighting spirit, on his determination to fight. They are like tiny worms, gnawing and undermining imperceptibly, slowly but surely. I know the life of the workers, and not only from books. . . We must root out the old slave-owner’s point of view. That is one of our political tasks, a task just as urgently necessary as the formation of a staff composed of comrades, men and women, with thorough theoretical and practical training for Party work among working women.”
"We are enlisting women to work in the economy, the administration, legislation and government. All courses and educational institutions are open to them, so that they can improve their professional and social training. We are organizing community kitchens and public dining-rooms, laundries and repair shops, crèches, kindergartens, children’s homes and educational institutions of every kind. In brief, we are quite in earnest about carrying out the requirements of our program to shift the functions of housekeeping and education from the individual household to society. Woman is thus being relieved from her old domestic slavery and all dependence on her husband. She is enabled to give her capabilities and inclinations full play in society. Children are offered better opportunities for their development than at home. We have the most progressive female labor legislation in the world, and it is enforced by authorized representatives of organized labor. We are establishing maternity homes, mother-and-child homes, mothers’ health centers, courses for infant and child care, exhibitions of mother and child care, and the like. We are making every effort to provide for needy and unemployed women.”
Reference: Lenin on the Women’s Question, Clara Zetkin,(An Interview with Lenin on the Woman Question)

Thursday, May 4, 2017

Selected Paragraphs of Karl Marx, Great Philosopher, Revolutionary and First Dialectical Materialist: On His Birth Day (5 May)

(Note: All emphasis is readers’. These paragraphs illustrate the real basis of religion. We can conclude ourselves why so many spiritual Gurus are taking birth every day. With the help of these short paragraphs we can also conclude the motive of many leaders and “scientists” who are trying their best to strengthen religious illusion among masses and new generations of the students. And motive of all this propaganda is very clear: They don’t want people to adapt a critical view towards their own misery and the society which is based on the inequality and theft.)

Paragraphs from “A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right – Karl Marx”:

The foundation of irreligious criticism is: Man makes religion, religion does not make man. Religion is, indeed, the self-consciousness and self-esteem of man who has either not yet won through to himself, or has already lost himself again. But man is no abstract being squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man– state, society. This state and this society produce religion, which is an inverted consciousness of the world, because they are an inverted world. Religion is the general theory of this world, its encyclopaedic compendium, its logic in popular form, its spiritual point d’honneur, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn complement, and its universal basis of consolation and justification. It is the fantastic realization of the human essence since the human essence has not acquired any true reality. The struggle against religion is, therefore, indirectly the struggle against that world whose spiritual aroma is religion.

Religious suffering is, at one and the same time, the expression of real suffering and a protest against real suffering. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.
The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions. The criticism of religion is, therefore, in embryo, the criticism of that vale of tears of which religion is the halo.
Criticism has plucked the imaginary flowers on the chain not in order that man shall continue to bear that chain without fantasy or consolation, but so that he shall throw off the chain and pluck the living flower. The criticism of religion disillusions man, so that he will think, act, and fashion his reality like a man who has discarded his illusions and regained his senses, so that he will move around himself as his own true Sun. Religion is only the illusory Sun which revolves around man as long as he does not revolve around himself.
It is, therefore, the task of history, once the other-world of truth has vanished, to establish the truth of this world. It is the immediate task of philosophy, which is in the service of history, to unmask self-estrangement in its unholy forms once the holy form of human self-estrangement has been unmasked. Thus, the criticism of Heaven turns into the criticism of Earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law, and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics.
Paragraphs from “Estranged Labour – Karl Marx”:
The worker becomes all the poorer the more wealth he produces, the more his production increases in power and size. The worker becomes an ever cheaper commodity the more commodities he creates. The devaluation of the world of men is in direct proportion to the increasing value of the world of things. Labor produces not only commodities; it produces itself and the worker as a commodity – and this at the same rate at which it produces commodities in general.
So much does the appropriation of the object appear as estrangement that the more objects the worker produces the less he can possess and the more he falls under the sway of his product, capital.
For on this premise it is clear that the more the worker spends himself, the more powerful becomes the alien world of objects which he creates over and against himself, the poorer he himself – his inner world – becomes, the less belongs to him as his own. It is the same in religion. The more man puts into God, the less he retains in himself. The worker puts his life into the object; but now his life no longer belongs to him but to the object. Hence, the greater this activity, the more the worker lacks objects. Whatever the product of his labor is, he is not. Therefore, the greater this product, the less is he himself. The alienation of the worker in his product means not only that his labor becomes an object, an external existence, but that it exists outside him, independently, as something alien to him, and that it becomes a power on its own confronting him. It means that the life which he has conferred on the object confronts him as something hostile and alien.
||XXIII/ Let us now look more closely at the objectification, at the production of the worker; and in it at theestrangement, the loss of the object, of his product.
The worker can create nothing without nature, without the sensuous external world. It is the material on which his labor is realized, in which it is active, from which, and by means of which it produces.
In both respects, therefore, the worker becomes a servant of his object, first, in that he receives an object of labor, i.e., in that he receives work, and, secondly, in that he receives means of subsistence. This enables him to exist, first as a worker; and second, as a physical subject. The height of this servitude is that it is only as aworker that he can maintain himself as a physical subject and that it is only as a physical subject that he is a worker.
(According to the economic laws the estrangement of the worker in his object is expressed thus: the more the worker produces, the less he has to consume; the more values he creates, the more valueless, the more unworthy he becomes; the better formed his product, the more deformed becomes the worker; the more civilized his object, the more barbarous becomes the worker; the more powerful labor becomes, the more powerless becomes the worker; the more ingenious labor becomes, the less ingenious becomes the worker and the more he becomes nature’s slave.)
Political economy conceals the estrangement inherent in the nature of labor by not considering thedirect relationship between the worker (labor) and production. It is true that labor produces for the rich wonderful things – but for the worker it produces privation. It produces palaces – but for the worker, hovels. It produces beauty – but for the worker, deformity. It replaces labor by machines, but it throws one section of the workers back into barbarous types of labor and it turns the other section into a machine. It produces intelligence – but for the worker, stupidity, cretinism.
The life of the species, both in man and in animals, consists physically in the fact that man (like the animal) lives on organic nature; and the more universal man (or the animal) is, the more universal is the sphere of inorganic nature on which he lives. Just as plants, animals, stones, air, light, etc., constitute theoretically a part of human consciousness, partly as objects of natural science, partly as objects of art – his spiritual inorganic nature, spiritual nourishment which he must first prepare to make palatable and digestible – so also in the realm of practice they constitute a part of human life and human activity. Physically man lives only on these products of nature, whether they appear in the form of food, heating, clothes, a dwelling, etc. The universality of man appears in practice precisely in the universality which makes all nature his inorganicbody – both inasmuch as nature is (1) his direct means of life, and (2) the material, the object, and the instrument of his life activity. Nature is man’s inorganic body – nature, that is, insofar as it is not itself human body. Man lives on nature – means that nature is his body, with which he must remain in continuous interchange if he is not to die. That man’s physical and spiritual life is linked to nature means simply that nature is linked to itself, for man is a part of nature.
In estranging from man (1) nature, and (2) himself, his own active functions, his life activity, estranged labor estranges the species from man. It changes for him the life of the species into a means of individual life. First it estranges the life of the species and individual life, and secondly it makes individual life in its abstract form the purpose of the life of the species, likewise in its abstract and estranged form.
For labor, life activity, productive life itself, appears to man in the first place merely as a means of satisfying a need – the need to maintain physical existence. Yet the productive life is the life of the species. It is life-engendering life. The whole character of a species, its species-character, is contained in the character of its life activity; and free, conscious activity is man’s species-character. Life itself appears only as a means to life.
The animal is immediately one with its life activity. It does not distinguish itself from it. It is its life activity. Man makes his life activity itself the object of his will and of his consciousness. He has conscious life activity. It is not a determination with which he directly merges. Conscious life activity distinguishes man immediately from animal life activity. It is just because of this that he is a species-being. Or it is only because he is a species-being that he is a conscious being, i.e., that his own life is an object for him. Only because of that is his activity free activity. Estranged labor reverses the relationship, so that it is just because man is a conscious being that he makes his life activity, his essential being, a mere means to his existence.
In creating a world of objects by his personal activity, in his work upon inorganic nature, man proves himself a conscious species-being, i.e., as a being that treats the species as his own essential being, or that treats itself as a species-being. Admittedly animals also produce. They build themselves nests, dwellings, like the bees, beavers, ants, etc. But an animal only produces what it immediately needs for itself or its young. It produces one-sidedly, whilst man produces universally. It produces only under the dominion of immediate physical need, whilst man produces even when he is free from physical need and only truly produces in freedom therefrom. An animal produces only itself, whilst man reproduces the whole of nature. An animal’s product belongs immediately to its physical body, whilst man freely confronts his product. An animal forms only in accordance with the standard and the need of the species to which it belongs, whilst man knows how to produce in accordance with the standard of every species, and knows how to apply everywhere the inherent standard to the object. Man therefore also forms objects in accordance with the laws of beauty.
It is just in his work upon the objective world, therefore, that man really proves himself to be a species-being. This production is his active species-life. Through this production, nature appears as his work and his reality. The object of labor is, therefore, the objectification of man’s species-life: for he duplicates himself not only, as in consciousness, intellectually, but also actively, in reality, and therefore he sees himself in a world that he has created. In tearing away from man the object of his production, therefore, estranged labor tears from him his species-life, his real objectivity as a member of the species and transforms his advantage over animals into the disadvantage that his inorganic body, nature, is taken from him.
Similarly, in degrading spontaneous, free activity to a means, estranged labor makes man’s species-life a means to his physical existence.
The consciousness which man has of his species is thus transformed by estrangement in such a way that species[-life] becomes for him a means.
Estranged labor turns thus:
Man’s species-being, both nature and his spiritual species-property, into a being alien to him, into a means of his individual existence. It estranges from man his own body, as well as external nature and his spiritual aspect, his human aspect.
An immediate consequence of the fact that man is estranged from the product of his labor, from his life activity, from his species-being, is the estrangement of man from man. When man confronts himself, he confronts the other man. What applies to a man’s relation to his work, to the product of his labor and to himself, also holds of a man’s relation to the other man, and to the other man’s labor and object of labor.
In fact, the proposition that man’s species-nature is estranged from him means that one man is estranged from the other, as each of them is from man’s essential nature.
The estrangement of man, and in fact every relationship in which man [stands] to himself, is realized and expressed only in the relationship in which a man stands to other men.
Hence within the relationship of estranged labor each man views the other in accordance with the standard and the relationship in which he finds himself as a worker.
Let us now see, further, how the concept of estranged, alienated labor must express and present itself in real life.
If the product of labor is alien to me, if it confronts me as an alien power, to whom, then, does it belong?
To a being other than myself.
Who is this being?
The gods? To be sure, in the earliest times the principal production (for example, the building of temples, etc., in Egypt, India and Mexico) appears to be in the service of the gods, and the product belongs to the gods. However, the gods on their own were never the lords of labor. No more was nature. And what a contradiction it would be if, the more man subjugated nature by his labor and the more the miracles of the gods were rendered superfluous by the miracles of industry, the more man were to renounce the joy of production and the enjoyment of the product to please these powers.

Wednesday, May 3, 2017

Che Guevara - Quote

The ultimate and most important revolutionary aspiration: to see human beings liberated from their alienation. The individual will reach total consciousness as a social being, which is equivalent to the full realization as a human creature, once the chains of alienation are broken. This will be translated concretely into the reconquering of one's true nature through liberated labor, and the expression of one's own human condition through culture and art.
The basic clay of our work is the youth; we place our hope in it and prepare it to take the banner from our hands.

Che Guevara

Monday, May 1, 2017

Lenin on May Day - "Two worlds stand facing each other in this great struggle: the world of capital and the world of labour"

Lenin on May Day, 
"May Day", "the day when the workers of all lands celebrate their awakening to a class- conscious life, their solidarity in the struggle against all coercion and oppression of man by man, the struggle to free the toiling millions from hunger, poverty, and humiliation. Two worlds stand facing each other in this great struggle: the world of capital and the world of labour, the world of exploitation and slavery and the world of brotherhood and freedom." "Let campaigning for the workers’ demands be carried on ever more boldly! Let the celebration of May Day win thousands of new fight ers to our cause and swell our forces in the great struggle for the freedom of all the people, for the liberation of all who toil from the yoke of capital!"

Sunday, April 30, 2017

देश में बड़ती गरीब-अमीर की खाई और लोगों का ध्यान मूल मुद्दों से भटकाने के कारण

हमारा उत्तरदायित्व है कि हम मौज़ूदा पीड़ियों को टकराव में टूट कर बिखरने से और मानवीय रूप से विकृत होने या उनके द्वारा नई पीड़ियों को विकृत करने से बचायें।
– चे ग्वेरा, लेटिन अमेरिका के महान क्रान्तिकारी
एक संस्था (Business and Sustainable Development Commission, Hindustan Times, 29 April 2017) की रिपोर्ट के अनुसार देश में मौज़ूद कुल सम्पत्ति का 53 प्रतिशत हिस्सा देश के 1 प्रतिशत अमीरों को पास केन्द्रित है और लूट के दम पर यह खाई लगातार बढ़ रही है। दूसरी ओर देश की पूँजीवादी अर्थव्यवस्था में नियमित रोज़गार के मौके लगातार कम हो रहे हैं। हर क्षेत्र में ठेकाकरण अपने चरम पर है। काम की तलास करने वाले करोड़ों नौजवानों को काम के कोई विकल्प नहीं मिल रहे है और बेरोज़गारी की दर लगातार बढ़ रही है (HT, 6 Feb 2017)। बेरोज़गारी बढ़ने के साथ काम करने वालों की काम की परिस्थितियाँ और भी बदतर होती जा रही हैं। आज करोड़ों ऐसे लोग हैं जिनके पास रोज़गार का कोई विकल्प नहीं है।
लूट पर टिकी मुनाफ़ा केन्द्रति व्यवस्था के आन्तरिक अन्तर्विरोध मुख़र हो रहे हैं। और आब, आज़ादी के 70 साल बाद यह साबित हो चुका है कि देश की पिछड़ी पूँजीवादी व्यवस्था देश की व्यापक आबादी की आवश्यकता पूरी करने और उन्हें सम्माननीय जीवनस्तर मुहैया करने में विफल हो चुकी है, और जनता को अपने सामने हाल-फिलहाल कोई विकल्प नहीं दिख रहा हैं। देश में ग़रीब-अमीर की खाई अपने चरम पर पहुँचने रही। ऐसे में आज कल जो हो रहा है उसे समझा जा सकता है। जब व्यवस्था के अन्तरविरोध तीखे होने लगते हैं तो कई ऐसे नारे दिये जाते हैं जो जनता के बीच उनकी बदहाल-बेहाल परिस्थितियों के लिये जिम्मेदार एक काल्पनिक दुश्मन दिखाकर लोगों को आपस में लड़ाने और उसके समाधार के रूप में फासीवाद का विकल्प पूरे ज़ोर से प्रचारित करते हैं। इस प्रचार के माध्यम में समाज के कुँठित-बीमार नौजवानों और प्रबुद्ध नागरिकों को भीड़-मानशिकता बनाकर उन्हें आपस में लड़ने के लिये प्रोत्साहित किया जाता है। इसके क्लासिक उदाहरण इतिहास में देखे जा सकते हैं, जिनमे हिटलरकाल की फासिस्ट जर्मनी सबसे सटीक उदाहरण है, नाजी पार्टी में जर्मनों को यह विश्वास दिला दिया था कि 1929 की पूँजीवादी महा-आर्थिक मंदी उनकी बर्बादी का कारण नहीं है बल्कि दुनिया के याहूदी उसकी सभी समस्याओं का जिम्मेदार है।
आज जीवन की परिस्थितियों से हताश और कुंठा के शिकार लोगों का एक बड़ा तबका फासिस्टों की कतारों में जुड़ रहा है। वैचारिक और व्यवहारिक दोनों रूपों में। यह वो लोग हैं जो अत्यंत असंवेदशीन हैं, आत्मकेन्द्रित हैं और अपनी बदतर परिस्थितियों के प्रति विद्रोह की भावना नहीं रखते बल्कि हीनभावना से ग्रस्त जी रहे हैं। ये लोग अपनी कुंठा और हीनभावना को छुपाने के लिये एक काल्पनिक दुश्मन की तलाश करते हैं, और फिर उसका विरोध करना शुरू कर देते हैं। ये लोग किसी वाद-विवाद में विचारों की आलोचना करने या सुनने की सहनशक्ति नहीं रखते बल्कि बहस को विचारों से भटकाक व्यक्तिगत आरोप प्रत्यारोप पर ले जाते हैं और इसमें अपनी आत्मतुष्टि ढूँढ़ते हैं। पीले चेहरे वाले यही लोग, आज पूरी दुनिया में बढ़ रहे कट्टरपन्थी धार्मिक उन्माद, नस्ल-भेदी, जाति-भेदी हिंसा भड़काने वाले फासिस्टों के प्यादे बनाये जा रहे हैं।
इतिहास के उदाहरण हमारे सामने हैं जब ऐसी परिस्थिति से निपटने के लिये समाज के संवेदनशील, विचारशील, प्रगतिशील, क्रान्तिकारी नौजवानों और नागरिकों के सामने एकमात्र विकल्प होता है कि वह समाज के एकमात्र प्रगतिशील वर्ग, मेहनतकश आवाम, के सामने एक क्रान्तिकारी विकल्प खड़ा करे और एक संवेदनशील समाज बनाने के लिये उन्हें संगठित करें। साथ ही नौजवानों के बीच पूरी दुनिया के क्रान्तिकारी प्रगतिशील विचारों को पहुँचाना अत्यंत ज़रूरी हो जाता है।

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

समाज के घटियापन और हर एक व्यक्ति के कर्म के बारे में मक्सिम गोर्की के कुछ व्यक्तिगत अनुभव

"अपने आप में छोटी विजय भी आदमी को अधिक प्रबल बनाती है।" - मक्सिम गोर्की
आज कल के नौजवान जो एक दायरे से आगे सोचने में अक्षम हैं क्योंकि वे जिस सामाजिक सांचे ढांचे में पल बढ़ रहे हैं वह उन्हें अतार्किक बनाकर मुनाफे के लिये बिना कोई सवाल उठाये काम में लगे रहने वाली एक मशीन बनाने की एक पूरी फैक्टरी है। कुछ ऐसे हालात का वर्णन गोर्की ने 20वीं सदी के रूस में अपने जीनव के बारे में किया है, गोर्की के ये अनुभव काम करने वाले हर एक नौजवान को जानने चाहिये । गोर्की की पुस्तक सृजन-प्रकिया और शिल्प के बारे में से,
ऐसा लगता था मानो मैं एक घने वन में रास्ता भूल गया हूँ जिसमें चारों ओर हवा से गिरे हुए बहुत से पेड़ हैं, घनी झाड़ियां और सड़े हुये पत्ते हैं जिनमें मैं घुटनों तक धंसा जा रहा हूँ।
बहुते से यूवकों के सामने एसे शब्द आते होंगे जो उसकी कल्पना में वैसी ही चालक शक्ति भर देतें होंगे, जैसे अनुकूल हवा जहाज़ के पाल में।
जीवन के घटियापन तथा निष्ठरता का भय मैंने बहुत अच्छी तरह अनुभव किया था, मैंने आत्महत्या की चेष्टा भी की जिसे मैं बहुत दिनों तक गहरी लज्जा तथा आत्मघृणा की भावना के बिना याद नहीं कर सकता था।
मुझे उस डर से छुटकारा तब मिला जब मैंने यह जान लिया कि लोग उतने बुरे नहीं होते जितने अज्ञान होते हैं, कि मैं उनसे या जीवन से नहीं, बल्कि अपनी सामाजिक तथा अन्य प्रकार की अज्ञानता, जीवन के समक्ष अपनी निराश्रयता तथा असहायता के कारण भयभीत हूँ। स्थिति वास्तव में यही थी। मैं समझता हूँ कि आपको इस बाते पे अच्छी तरह विचार करना चाहिये क्योंकि आपमें से कुछ लोग जो विवाप और शिकायत करते हैं उसका कारण इसके सिवा कुछ नहीं है कि उनमें जीवन के समक्ष निराश्रयता की भवना है, पुराना संसार मानव को बाहर तथा अन्दर से उत्पीड़ित करने के लिये जिन सब चीजों का प्रयोग करता है उनके विरुद्ध लड़ने की अपनी क्षमता में विश्वास का अभाव है।
"आपको अपने आपमे तथा अपनी शक्ति में विश्वास की भावना पैदा करनी चाहिये, और विश्वास बाधाओं को कुचलने तथा संकल्प को दृढ़ करने से प्राप्त होता है। आपको सीखना होगा कि कैसे अपने आपमें कखा अपने आसपास से अतीत की घटिया तथा धृणित विरासत को निकाल फेंकें।
"प्रत्येक वस्तु जो वास्तव में मूल्यवान है, स्थाई रूप से उपयोगी तथा सुन्दर है, जिसे मनुष्य ने विज्ञान, कला तथा प्रविधि के क्षेत्र में प्राप्त किया है, वह ऐसे व्यक्तियों की उपलब्धि है जो अवर्णनीय रूप से कठिन स्थितियों में, समाजकी अत्यंत अज्ञानता, चर्च के भयंकर द्वेषभाव, पूँजीपतियों को धनलिप्सा, तथा कला और विज्ञानों के संरक्षकों की सनकी माँगों के बातावरण में काम करते रहे थे।

"पुस्तकों से मनुष्यों के बारे में मुझे ऐसी बातों का ज्ञान हो सकता है जो मैंने पहले उसमें नहीं देखी थीं या नहीं जानता था। जीवन के बुरे पहलू को भी आदमी को उसी तरह जानना चाहिये जिस तरह अच्छे पहलू को। आदमी को अधिक से अधिक ज्ञान होना चाहिये। आदमी का अनुभव जितना विविध होगा, उसकी उड़ान उतनी उतनी ही ऊँची तथा दृष्टि क्षेत्र व्यापक होगा।

Friday, March 3, 2017

नौजवानों, लेखकों और कलाकारों के संदर्भ में - मक्सिम गोर्की के कुछ शब्द (Maxim Gorky Quotes)

कलाकार अपने देश तथा वर्ग का संवेदनशील ग्रहणकर्ता है – उसका कान, आँख तथा हृदय है। वह अपने युग की आवाज है। उसका कर्तव्य है कि जितना कुछ जान सकता हो जाने और अतीत को वह जितनी भलीभाँति जानेगा, वर्तमान को उतना ही अधिक अच्छी तरह समझेगा और उतनी ही गहराई और सूक्ष्मता से वह हमारे समय की सर्वव्यापी क्रान्तिकारिता तथा उसके कार्यभार की व्यापाकता को बोधगम्य कर सकेगा। उसके लिये जनता के इतीहास का ज्ञान आवश्यक है और इसी प्रकार सामाजिक तथा राजनीतिक चिन्तन का ज्ञान भी।
मेरे लिये मानव से परे विचारों का कोई अस्तित्व नहीं है। मेरे नज़दीक मानव तथा एकमात्र मानव ही सभी वस्तुओं और विचारों का निर्माता है। चमत्कार वही करता है और वही प्रकृति की सभी शक्तियों का भावी स्वामीं है। हमारे इस संसार में जो भी अति सुन्दर है उसका निर्माण मानव श्रम, और उसके कुशल हाथों ने किया है। हमारे सभी भाव और विचार श्रम की प्रक्रिया में उत्पन्न होते हैं और यह ऐसी बात है, जिसकी कला, विज्ञान तथा प्रविधि का इतिहास पुष्टि करता है। विचार तथ्य के पीछे चलता है। मैं मानुष्य को इसी लिये प्रणाम करता हूँ कि इस संसार में मुझे कोई ऐसी चीज़ नहीं दिखाई देती जो उसके विवेक, उसकी कल्पनाशक्ति, उसके अनुमान का साकार रूप न हो।
यदि पावन वस्तु की चर्चा आवश्यक ही है, तो वह है अपने आपसे मानुष्य का असंतोष, उसकी यह आकांक्षा कि वह जैसा है उससे बेहतर बने। जिन्दगी की सारी गन्दगी के प्रति, जिसे उसने स्वयं जन्म दिया है, उसकी घृणा को भी मैं पवित्र मानता हूँ। ईर्षा, धनलिप्सा, अपराध, रोग, युद्ध तथा संसार में लोगों के बीच शत्रुता का अंत करने की उसकी इच्छा और उसके श्रम कों पवित्र मानता हूँ।

पुस्तक भी जीवन और मानव के समान ही है। वह भी एक सजीव तथा बोलता तथ्य है, और वह उन सब वस्तुओं की तुलना में जिनकी सृष्टि मनुष्य ने की है, या कर रहा है, सबसे कम वस्तु है।

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